Caffeine is the most frequently used substance with a central nervous system stimulant effect, but its consumption is most often due to the intake of foods and drinks that contain it (coffee, tea, chocolate, food supplements with plant extracts of Guarana, Mate herba, Cola nuts). Due to its innocuity, caffeine is a safe xanthine alkaloid for human consumption in a wide range of doses, being used for its central nervous stimulating effect, lipolytic and diuresis-enhancing properties, but also as a permitted ergogenic compound in athletes. In addition to the mechanisms that explain the effects of caffeine on the targeted organ, there are many proposed mechanisms by which this substance would have antioxidant effects. As such, its consumption prevents the occurrence/progression of certain neurodegenerative diseases as well as other medical conditions associated with increased levels of reactive oxygen or nitrogen species. However, most studies that have assessed the beneficial effects of caffeine have used pure caffeine. The question, therefore, arises whether the daily intake of caffeine from food or drink has similar benefits, considering that in foods or drinks with a high caffeine content, there are other substances that could interfere with this action, either by potentiating or decreasing its antioxidant capacity. Natural sources of caffeine often combine plant polyphenols (phenol-carboxylic acids, catechins) with known antioxidant effects; however, stimulant drinks and dietary supplements often contain sugars or artificial sweeteners that can significantly reduce the effects of caffeine on oxidative stress. The objective of this review is to clarify the effects of caffeine in modulating oxidative stress and assess these benefits, considering the source and the dose administered.