Filter or drip coffee is made by putting finely-ground coffee in a paper or reusable cone-shaped unit. Nearly-boiling water is then poured on top. The brew filters through the unit into a pot or mug and is ready to drink. The coffee grounds remain in the cone. These days, this is mostly done by electric filter coffee machines.
The plunger or cafetiere™ method is made from coarsely ground coffee placed in a pot and hot water added to the grounds. The brew is stirred and left to steep for three to five minutes. The plunger is then pushed down to separate the coffee grounds from the coffee infusion.
Espresso machines force hot water under pressure through very finely ground and compacted coffee into the cups below. This enables significant aroma and flavour to be extracted with low quantities of water. Espresso coffee also usually has a top layer of crema, which is a fine and creamy foam.
Swedish/Scandinavian brewed coffee, as its name suggests, is used in Sweden, as well as other parts of the Nordic region, such as Finland. It is made by boiling ground coffee in water and serving, often without filtering. It tends to be very strong. The coffee is often kept hot for consumption throughout the day.
Turkish coffee is made in an ibriq, a small copper pot with a long handle. Two teaspoons of finely-ground coffee plus one of sugar are added to a cup of water and the mixture is brought to the boil. The ibriq is taken off the heat as it comes to the boil, usually three times. It is then poured out and drunk. A cardamom seed is sometimes added for flavour.
Coffee may then be elaborated to suit individual tastes, for example by adding milk and sugar, frothed milk, flavouring syrups, spices etc.