Moderate coffee consumption is typically defined as 3-5 cups per day, based on the European Food Safety Authority’s review of caffeine safety24.
In the case of Alzheimer’s Disease (AD), research points to an inverse association between lifelong coffee consumption and the risk of developing this condition24-35. However, as research in this area is still limited, further studies are required. A number of studies have suggested that caffeine may be involved in the observed effect36-41, but other coffee constituents such as trigonelline42-44 and polyphenols45-46 are also of interest.
Epidemiological studies also suggest an inverse association between coffee consumption and the risk of developing Parkinson’s Disease (PD)47-63. Research has indicated that caffeine may be involved in the potential preventative effect coffee consumption has on PD54,64-67. Caffeine may play a role by antagonising adenosine A2A receptors. Such antagonists are thought to have neuroprotective properties54,68-70.
Several human studies have also reported that coffee consumption may have a protective effect on the risk of stroke71-76, especially in women72.
The content in this Overview was last edited in August 2019. Papers in the Latest Research section and further resources are added regularly.